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Bilge Sayim, Ph.D., PD


Bilge studied Psychology and Computer Science at Kiel University and at the University of California in San Diego. After a Master thesis on color vision, he joined the Ph.D. Program in Neuroscience at the Ecole polytechnique federale de Lausanne (EPFL) where he investigated spatial vision in Prof. Michael Herzog's laboratory, and graduated with a dissertation on grouping and Gestalt in visual contextual modulation. Following postdoctoral research with Prof. Patrick Cavanagh in Paris, and Prof. Johan Wagemans at the KU Leuven, he was Visiting Professor at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Antwerp. He is currently head of the Psychophysics of Appearance Laboratory at the Institute of Psychology, University of Bern, and research scientist in the SCALab at the Université de Lille, CNRS, France.


Herzog, M. H., & Sayim, B. (2022). Crowding: Recent advances and perspectives. Journal of Vision, 22(12), 1-4. [open access]


Dandan, Y.R., Ji, L., Song, Y., & Sayim, B. (2022). Foveal vision determines the perceived emotion of face ensembles. Attention, Perception, &  Psychophysics. [open access]


L-Miao, L., Reynvoet, B., & Sayim, B. (2022). Anisotropic representations of visual space modulate visual numerosity estimation. Vision Research, 201, 108130. [online] [preprint]

Şentürk, Y. D., Tavacioglu, E. E., Duymaz, İ., Sayim, B., & Alp, N. (2022). The Sabancı University Dynamic Face Database (SUDFace): Development and validation of an audiovisual stimulus set of recited and free speeches with neutral facial expressions. Behavior Research Methods. [online]

Rummens, K., & Sayim, B. (2022). Multidimensional feature interactions in visual crowding: When configural cues eliminate the polarity advantage. Journal of Vision, 22(6), 2. [open access]


Yildirim, F. Z., & Sayim, B. (2022). High confidence and low accuracy in redundancy masking. Consciousness and Cognition, 102, 103349. [open access]

Yildirim, F. Z., Coates, D. R., & Sayim, B. (2022). Atypical visual field asymmetries in redundancy masking. Journal of Vision, 22(5):4, 1–15. [open access]


Rummens, K., & Sayim, B. (2021). Broad attention uncovers benefits of stimulus uniformity in visual crowding. Scientific Reports, 11, 23976. [open access]

Hirsch. T., Haiduk, M., & Sayim, B. (2021). Raphael’s ‘imperfect’ viol – a question of perspective. Early Music, caab047. [download] [online]

Yildirim, F. Z., Coates, D. R., & Sayim, B. (2021). Hidden by bias: How standard psychophysical procedures conceal unbiased visual appearance. Scientific Reports, 11, 4095. [open access]

Melnik, N., Coates, D. R., & Sayim, B. (2021). Geometrically Restricted Image Descriptors: A method to capture the appearance of shape. Journal of Vision, 21(3), 14. [open access]

Taylor, H., & Sayim, B. (2020). Redundancy masking and the identity crowding debate. Thought: A Journal of Philosophy, 9(4), 257-265. [open access]

Doerig, A., Schmittwilken, L., Sayim, B., Manassi, M., & Herzog, M. H. (2020). Capsule networks as recurrent models of grouping and segmentation PLOS Computational Biology, 16(7), e1008017. [download] [online]

Yildirim, F. Z., Coates, D. R., & Sayim, B. (2020). Redundancy masking: The loss of repeated items in crowded peripheral vision. Journal of Vision, 20(4), 14. [open access]

Melnik, N., Coates, D. R., & Sayim, B. (2020). Emergent features break the rules of crowding. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 1-10. [download] [online]

Sayim, B., & Taylor, H. (2019). Letters lost: Capturing appearance in crowded peripheral vision reveals a new kind of masking. Psychological Science. 30(7), 1082-1086. [download] [online]

Rummens, K., & Sayim, B. (2019). Disrupting uniformity: Feature contrasts that reduce crowding interfere with peripheral word recognition. Vision Research, 161, 25-35. [open acess]

Melnik, N., Coates, D. R., & Sayim, B. (2018). Emergent features in the crowding zone: When target-flanker grouping surmounts crowding. Journal of Vision, 18(9):19 [open access]

Taylor, H., & Sayim, B. (2018). Crowding, attention and consciousness: in support of the inference hypothesis. Mind & Language, 33(1), 17-33. [download] [online]

Sayim, B., & Franke, I. (2018). Towards a phenomenology of the unknown. Berlin, Schering Foundation. [download] [online]

Sayim, B., & Wagemans, J. (2017). Appearance changes and error distributions in crowding revealed by drawings. Journal of Vision, 17(11), 8. [open access]

Coates, D. R., Wagemans, J., & Sayim, B. (2017). Diagnosing the visual periphery: Using the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure test to evaluate peripheral visual function. i-Perception, 8(3). [open access]

Greenwood, J. A., Szinte, M., Sayim, B., & Cavanagh, P. (2017). Variations in crowding, saccadic precision, and spatial localization reveal the shared topology of spatial vision. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114(17), E3573-E3582. [open access]

Ekroll, V., Sayim, B., & Wagemans, J. (2017). The other side of magic: The psychology of perceiving hidden things. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 12(1), 91-106. [download] [online]

Herzog, M.H., Sayim, B., Manassi, M., & Chicherov, V. (2016). What crowds in crowding? Journal of Vision, 16(11), 25. [open acess]

Ekroll, V., Sayim, B., van der Hallen, R., & Wagemans, J. (2016). Illusory visual completion of an object’s invisible backside can make your finger feel shorter. Current Biology, 26(8), 1029–33. [open access]

Overvliet, K.E.1, & Sayim, B.1 (2015). Perceptual grouping determines haptic contextual modulation. Vision Research, 126, 52-58. [1 joint first author] [open acess]

Sayim, B., Myin, E., & Van Uytven, T. (2015). Prior knowledge modulates peripheral color appearance. Proceedings of the International Colour Association (AIC), Tokyo Midterm meeting, 1147-1152.

Herzog, M.H., Sayim, B., Chicherov, V., & Manassi, M. (2015). Crowding, grouping, and object recognition: A matter of appearance. Journal of Vision, 15(6):5, 1–18. [online]

Sayim, B., Greenwood, J. G., & Cavanagh, P. (2014). Foveal target repetitions reduce crowding. Journal of Vision, 14(6), 4. [open access]

Greenwood, J.G., Sayim, B., & Cavanagh, P. (2014). Crowding is reduced by onset transients in the target object (but not in the flankers). Journal of Vision, 14(6):2, 1-21. [open access]

Sayim, B., Manassi, M., & Herzog, M.H. (2014). How color, regularity, and Gestalt determine backward masking. Journal of Vision, 14(7), 8. [open access]

Ekroll, V., Sayim, B., & Wagemans, J. (2013). Against better knowledge: The magical force of amodal volume completion. i-Perception, 4(8), 511-515. [open access]

Manassi ,M., Sayim, B., & Herzog, M. H. (2013). When crowding of crowding leads to uncrowding. Journal of Vision, 13(13), 10. [open access]

Sayim, B., & Cavanagh, P. (2013). Grouping and crowding affect target appearance over different spatial scales. PLoS ONE 8(8): e71188. [open access]

Manassi, M., Sayim, B., & Herzog, M. H. (2012). Grouping, pooling, and when bigger is better in visual crowding. Journal of Vision, 12(10), 13. [open access]


Sayim, B., & Cavanagh, P. (2011). What line drawings reveal about the visual brain. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 5(118), 1-4. [open access]

Sayim, B., & Cavanagh, P. (2011). The art of transparency. i-Perception, 2(7), 679-696. [open access]

Sayim, B., Wesheimer, G., & Herzog, M, H. (2011). Quantifying target conspicuity in contextual modulation by visual search. Journal of Vision, 11(1):6, 1-11. [open access]

Sayim, B., Grubert, A., Herzog, M. H., & Krummenacher, J. (2010). Display probability modulates attentional capture by onset distractors. Journal of Vision, 10(3):10, 1-8. [open access]

Sayim, B., Westheimer, G., & Herzog, M. H. (2010). Gestalt factors modulate basic spatial vision. Psychological Science, 21(5), 641-644. [online] [download]

Saarela, T. P., Sayim, B., Westheimer, G., & Herzog, M. H. (2009). Global stimulus configuration modulates crowding. Journal of Vision, 9(2):5, 1-11. [open access]

Sayim, B., Westheimer, G., & Herzog, M. H. (2008). Contrast polarity, chromaticity, and stereoscopic depth modulate contextual interactions in vernier acuity. Journal of Vision, 8(8):12, 1-9. [open access]

Sayim, B., Jameson, K. A., Alvarado, N., & Szeszel, M. (2005). Semantic and perceptual representations of color: Evidence of a shared color naming function. Journal of Cognition and Culture, 5, 165-220. [online] [download]

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